Course units - Veterinary pharmacology Sem. I/Year III, VM
The course for the English Class students: Part I: General Pharmacology
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Introduction. Scope and history of pharmacology
Branches of pharmacology. Notions of medicine, food, toxic, drug, remedy, medication. Pharmacopoeia. Achievements and directions in foreign and domestic drug industry. Scientific research of drug substances.
Route of administration and absorption of drugs in the body
Organism-environment processes. Pathways: oral, respiratory, cutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, etc. ways rectal administration, vaginal, intramammary etc.
Transport of drugs in the blood
Factors influencing transport (spatial structure, fixing for transport, globulins, lipo-, gammaproteins).
Histo-morphological characteristics. Physicochemical factors involved in distribution. Coupling to the protein. Diffusion in the fluid spaces. Relation pH, pKa and drug diffusion.
Drugs' distribution in tissues.
Diffusion mechanisms. Passage through the barriers (blood-brain, blood-ocular placental, skin). Redistribution medicines. Consequences of the unequal distribution of medicines.
Fixing medicines receptors.
Receptor theory. Activity and receptor characterization. Mode of action and nature of the receptors. Isolation and identification of the receptor agonists. Antagonists. Secondary messengers.
Coupling response quantifying
Coupling theories (Clark's theory, Ariens’ theory, Stephenson's theory, Paton's theory, the "activation'' theory, theories enzymology.
Drug metabolism - factors
Factors influencing metabolism. Physiological factors (renal blood flow, urinary pH, protein binding, enzyme factors). Animal-related factors (species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, nutrition, health, genetic factors). Exogenous factors (circadian rhythm chemical compounds exogenous stressors).
Microsomal an unmicrozomal changes, biotransformation under the action of the digestive microflora, drug conjugation, acetylation, methylation, sulphono-conjugation, glucuronidation, peptidconjugation, mercaptation.
Drugs elimination and their accumulation in the body.
About eliminating mechanisms: renal, digestive, biliary, respiratory, skin, mammary gland, through the egg.
Elements of pharmacokinetics.
Kinetics of availability. The pharmacokinetic models: mono-, bi-, and three-compartmental. Bateman's function. The absorption and elimination constants. Minimum blood levels. The rate of drug administration. Enzyme induction and blood levels. Pharmacokinetic parameters’ quantification.
Factors influencing the drugs’ effect
Species, age and individual peculiarities, type of nerve activity pathological condition, route of administration, drug form. Influencing the therapeutic effect through: the amount of drug. Factors that determine the dose titration. Concomitant drug therapy. Factors that determine the frequency of administration. Stereo specificity of drug action. Zero-order kinetics. Drug residues. Risk-benefit ratios.
Changes in the organism under the influence of drugs.
General, local, direct, indirect, reflex, main and secondary, etiotropa. Symptomatic therapy. Correlation between chemical structure, pharmacodynamic action. Latency and intensity. Dose-effect relationship.
Animal body's response to medication
Pharmacon’s action duration. Biopharmaceutical drug bioavailability and therapeutic effect factors. Veterinary drug bioequivalence. Statistical methods commonly used in pharmacometry.
Practical elements of veterinary therapeutics
Drug combinations. Interactions and phenomena that can be observed upon repeated administration or after the drugs combination accumulation, drug habit, synergism, potentiation, antagonism. Antidotism. Side effects (undesirable). Therapeutic or toxic action of drugs at the time and place of administration. Incompatibilities. Clinical pharmacology study.