Veterinary Pharmacology sources
In the early decades discipline of pharmacology was named De materia medica and included together, elements of veterinary pharmacology, therapeutics and pharmacy. Concomitantly, veterinary therapy, called rational (if the nature of disease and mode of drugs’ action were fully known or empirical (when their knowledge was incomplete) became the experimental field for the clinician.
Discovery of plants’ proprieties was made no doubly by trials of peoples who attempted different plants, animals and minerals from their environment as potential sources of food and therapy. Oldest herbal remedies were described by Pen Tsao China during Emperor She Nnung in about 2700 BC human and animal medicine being developed in Asia since ancient time.
The Code of Hammurabi (2200 BC) described sanctions for malpractice occurs when taking remedies for humans and animals, and in the Kahuna papyrus (2000 BC) are presented first veterinary care recommendations.
In the Ebers papyrus (about 1550 BC) are presented the main diseases known to Egyptian medicine and prescriptions, including 829 different remedies used in medicine time. Of treatment and remedies doctrine was sent to Greek civilization.
Hippocrates may be considered the most important professor of medicine from early Greece. He formed a group of doctors known as the School of Hippocrates who used herbs scientifically. This concept related to the healing power plant became known as Vis Medicatrix Natura. A perfect valid theory of Hippocrates’ School, provides the medical ethics foundation: "Primum Non Nocere - Above all, do not hurt".
Scientific base in medicine was initiated by Aristotle (384-322 BC), who made many observations on animals. His student, Theophrastus, classified herbs according to them basic characteristics. Based on this information, Dioscorides compiled De Materia Medica in six volumes which describe about 600 plants that can be used to treat diseases. Here were discussed in terms of name, source, of the morphological identification, preparation, depending on the form and dosage, usage and respectively where disease is recommended. This monumental work may be considered the first textbook of pharmacology. To this were added to the works of Galenos (131-201), the information being widely used for the next 1400 years. Publius Vegetius (Vth Century) imposed the Veterinary tractate that included prescription bases for the farm animals. After the fall of Rome, Europe entered the Dark Ages.
Development of medical knowledge of that period was found only in Muslim culture. During this time the Arabs have developed strong pharmacy practice and were the first to distilled wine and beer to get the ethanol used to prepare the tinctures. They also were the first to have rules to standardize the practice of pharmacy prescription. Gheber Ibn Hazar (702-765) classifies drugs and poisons in his time and see the difference between drugs and poisons is a matter of dosage. If any medicine is poison in a quantity enlarged management (confirming the Latin adage: Dosis sola facit venenum).
During the Renaissance, in Europe, appears first Pharmacopoeia, published by Cordus Valerius (1514-1544), who described the techniques of drugs’ preparing in contrast to the secrecy that exists in that era.
Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the revival of medical and pharmaceutical sciences. Drug trade has flourished and medical experiments have become increasingly. Herbal drugs (such as Cinchona, Condodendron, Coffea, Digitalis, Strychnos, Strophantus, Thea, Thebroma etc.) have been extensively studied and many alkaloids have been discovered since that time
Vet pharmacology in the European space and in the Romanian provinces
25 years after the founding of the first Ecole Royale Veterinaire de Lyon (1762) by Claude Bourgelat (1712-1779)(after 1762 there have been established and other schools of veterinary medicine such as: Paris Alfort 1766, Torino 1769, Copenhaga 1780, Berlin 1790, Milano 1791, Londra 1792, Madrid 1793, Berna 1806 etc.) first as institutionalized veterinary education was founded in Cluj Napoca, since 1787 under the name of: Department of Veterinary Therapy, inside of Medical-Surgical Institute. It is very possible that this department has existed since 1775, year of the Institute creation (by Maria Theresia Imperial Order) (Ghergariu, 1994).
In 1787, the Institute, as proof, was composed of two departments:
I - Anatomy, Surgery, Obstetrics, led by Josephus Laffer;
II - Veterinary Therapy, led, first, by Petrus Fuhrmann.
Veterinary Medical Education was teached along with the Human Medical one at the Institute until 1872, graduates receiving title of Magister chirurgiae et obstetritiae veterinariae, which empowered to exercise both, human and veterinary medicine. According to the Summa Praeceptorum Chirurgiae et Studium cursum biennalem determinatium (Maizner J., cit. Ghergariu, 1994) curriculum in 1793, lay out as following:
Semester I: Anatomy,
Semester II: Theoretical Obstetrics, Forensic medicine, Physiology, Biology,
Semester I: Pathology, Pharmacy and Veterinary therapy I.
Semester II: Veterinary Therapy II, Ophthalmology.
Since 1834, education during extended to three years, is the last year being executed terminal year internships (Ghergariu, 1994).
In 1860, is created by Dr. Carol Davila, The School of Medicine and Pharmacy, and from 1 January 1861, the same Carol Davila as consequence of "High resolution" of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, will set up in Bucharest, The Veterinary School belonging to the War Ministry, along with The School of Medicine and Pharmacy.
In this school, in the IIIrd year of studies, appeared, as fundamental matter, the Veterinary pharmacology, course taught at the beginning by Carol Prokesch, famous veterinarian trained in Vienna (who came to Romania in 1852), also the titular of Veterinary clinics, its place being taken by the veterinary doctor Ion Popescu (Simionescu, 1984). During this time, appeared first works with elements of veterinary care: In 1814 appears to Buda "The 100 years calendar (1814-1914)" at the expense of Nicola Nicolae from Brasov, where 31 pages were allocated to some treatments "against some illness that happens easily and often in horses, oxen and others". During the same period appears the brochure: "Doftorie contra galbezii = Medicine against flukes" of Stefan Gaing, where the author recommends root of Filice (Filis major) against trematode Fasciola hepatica.
Since 1864, following the "Instruction law", Veterinary School will be considered part of superior instruction, study duration increasing from three to five years (Simionescu, 1984).
Trough the statute of Veterinary school in 1864, remained in force until 1872, subjects were divided into six departments and spread over five years of study as follows:
• Natural sciences, Physics, Chemistry.
• Veterinary pharmacology, Botany.
• Anatomy, Physiology, Outside of domestic animals.
• Anatomy and pathology of hooves, shoeing art.
• Pathological anatomy, General pathology and internal clinic.
• Surgical pathology, Veterinary clinic surgery.
• Hygiene, Health policy, Epizootic and contagious diseases, Legal medicine.
In Iasi, appeared Rural and domestic economy, in 1834 under care of Draghici Manila with some instructions about veterinary therapy, but however, the first proper veterinary care book may be considered "Some teachings for seeking domestic livestock diseases and reproduction" published in 1842, written by Ion Huboti, graduate of Veterinary Medicine School from Vienna. Results obtained from its foundation, by the Vasilian Gymnasium in Iasi, urged Asachi (Educations’ Ministry) to intervene for the foundation of a Veterinary school here in Iasi, and provide it for the establishment, in the Organic Statute in force, the title of Academy.
Recognized and adopted since the dawn of modern veterinary medicine, veterinary pharmacology has had valuable exponents who represented the elite of Romanian medical intellectuality, being an occasion of pride and gratitude for the many generations of veterinarians from their pharmacology teachers: C. Prokesch, Al. Locusteanu, G. Slavu, N. Popescu, Fr. Popescu, Olimpia Vechiu, E. Licperta, P. Balaci, M. Mircea, A. Vintan, O. Schöbesch, C. Statescu, A. Gherdan, Ingeborg Bogdan, R. Tudorache.
Pharmacologiae Veterinariae Timisaensis
Discipline of Veterinary Pharmacology in Banat Region has started to work for the first time in Arad city, to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, under denomination: Veterinary pharmacology and Recepture.
The first course holder to discipline was:
Prof. Dr. Aurel Vintan
With the establishment, in 1962, of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Banat's capital, Timisoara (Temeswar), Dr. Aurel Vintan was requested to become the head of Veterinary Pharmacology and Recepture discipline that led her to his retirement in 1974. For a while, Professor Vintan tought the Medical botany course.
Professor Aurel Vintan combined, happily, his exceptional professional ability, with an unsurpassed smoothness in gestures and behaviour, with a great distinction and spiritual sensitivity, with a constant concern for his students and collaborators, eager to help and to understand them.
Professor Vintan proved to be a real man, with feelings, beliefs and facts, was an excellent teacher, who managed to mix harmoniously the theoretical aspects with practical skills of his students. Its lectures at highest level, backed by passion and vibration in his voice can not be forgotten by his former students.
Materials written by Prof. Aurel Vintan were
“Reproductia animalelor domestice”, authors: N. Luca, N. Popescu, N. Gluhovschi, A. Vintan, Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica Bucuresti, (1965), “Botanica Medicala”, (1948, reed. 1971), “Farmacologie veterinara si receptura”, authors: A. Vintan, O. Schöbesch, L. Enescu Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica Bucuresti, (1967), “Farmacologie veterinara”, A. Vintan, (1972).
Professor Aurel Vintan enjoyed also professional prestige abroad. In 1971, for example, was in Hungary, where he held exposures at the University of Veterinary Medicine and Central Laboratory for Diagnosis of Budapest, and in different institutions with veterinary medical profile from other parts of Hungary. Themes discussed, which focused provitamin A in cattle, were assessed in terms of praise as can be, causing extensive and numerous discussions and interest in running the program set out in the neighbouring country.
Scientific work of Professor Aurel Vintan, knowed also as "The Lord", can be considered rich, original and valuable. He was a man of high culture, great teacher, with original scientific achievements, the pattern of conduct for students and colleagues. As research main directions, which had great results can be mentioned:
"The specifics metabolism and effects of carotene and vitamin A in cattle",
"Sulphonamides: kinetics, dynamics and uses in therapy" .
It was initially, appointed part time (1963) as Assistant professor to the discipline and then, full-time Assistant (1968). From 1971 Dr. Gherdan worked as Lecturer and holder of the Nutritional diseases and toxicoses discipline (1972-1973).
From year 1973 until 1981, Dr. Gherdan was holding also the course of Veterinary toxicology, when discipline was taken by Mrs. Dr. Alexandra Trif.
From this time it is to remember the textbook: Toxicology and toxicoses, written together with the professors: Suteanu (Bucharest), Ghergariu (Cluj) and Popescu (Iasi). With the retirement of Prof. Vintan, in 1974, Dr. Gherdan, took the course of Veterinary pharmacology, becoming the head of the discipline until 1997.
From the work of particular concern to the discipline of Dr. Aurel Gherdan it is to remember the numerous research grants won in many areas as follows:
• Pharmacotherapeutic study of Helleborus purpurascens components,
• Researches on obtaining new drug formulations in the animal diseases treatment,
• Carotene and vitamin A in the field of breeding cows.
• Testing of atomised yeast product with ergosterol in young animals,
• Pharmacotherapeutic research with 500 IU Nystatin respiratory infections in birds.
From his retirement in 1997, the disciplines' titular became Romeo T. Cristina.
Since its beginnings to the present, discipline of veterinary pharmacology from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Timisoara enabled:
Veterinary Pharmacology (and Pharmacy, since 1998) as Course holders:
Prof. Dr. Aurel Vintan 1962-1974; (†), Head of discipline
Lect. Aurel M. Gherdan 1963-1974; 1974-1997, Head of discipline
Prof. Dr. Romeo T. Cristina 1991-1997; from 1997-, Head of discipline
Teachers who taught hours of practical works to the discipline:
Asist. Dr. Marin Moldovan 1962-1968 (†)
Asist. biol. Ileana Garici 1966-1970
Asist. biol. Aftina Tosici 1966-1977
Asist./Lect. Dr. Alexandra Trif 1968-1972; 1978-1990
Asist. Drd. Dana Duta 1998-2002
Asist. Drd. Krisztina Zongor 2002-2003
Asist. Dr./Lect. Eugenia Dumitrescu 2003 - present
Researchers to the discipline:
Pharm. Head Lab. Ana Biruescu 1964-1980 (†)
Eng. Chim. Dr. Dorel Parvu 1981-1991
Discipline staff at the veterinary clinics’ pharmacy:
Pharm. Antita Micsa 1966-1970
Technical staff to the discipline:
Tehn. Zdravco Stoianov 1966-1978
Princ. tehn. Constantin Honea 1978-2010